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Introduction to Microcontrollers

on Wed Aug 15, 2018 3:15 pm
What is Microcontroller?





Microcontrollers are integral part of embedded systems. A microcontroller is basically cheap and small computer on a single chip that comprises a processor, a small memory, and programmable input-output peripherals. They are meant to be used in automatically controlled products and devices to perform predefined and pre-programmed tasks. To get a better idea of what actually is a microcontroller; let’s see an example of a product where microcontroller is used.  A digital thermometer that displays the ambient temperature uses a microcontroller which is connected to a temperature sensor and a display unit (like LCD). The microcontroller here takes the input from temperature sensor in raw form, process it and display it to a small LCD display unit in a human readable form. Similarly a single or multiple microcontrollers are used in many electronic devices according to requirement and complexity of applications.


Features of Microcontrollers



  CPU

CPU is the brain of a microcontroller. CPU is responsible for fetching the instruction, decodes it, then finally executed. CPU connects every part of a microcontroller into a single system. The primary function of CPU is fetching and decoding instructions. The instruction fetched from program memory must be decoded by the CPU.

   Memory

The function of memory in a microcontroller is the same as a microprocessor. It is used to store data and program. A microcontroller usually has a certain amount of RAM and ROM (EEPROM, EPROM, etc) or flash memories for storing program source codes.

   Parallel input/output ports

Parallel input/output ports are mainly used to drive/interface various devices such as LCD’S, LED’S, printers, memories, etc to a microcontroller.

   Serial ports

Serial ports provide various serial interfaces between a microcontroller and other peripherals like parallel ports.

   Timers/counters

This is the one of the useful function of a microcontroller. A microcontroller may have more than one timer and counters. The timers and counters provide all timing and counting functions inside the microcontroller. The major operations of this section are performed clock functions, modulations, pulse generations, frequency measuring, making oscillations, etc. This also can be used for counting external pulses.

   Analog to Digital Converter (ADC)

ADC converters are used for converting the analog signal to digital form. The input signal in this converter should be in analog form (e.g. sensor output) and the output from this unit is in digital form. The digital output can be used for various digital applications (e.g. measurement devices).

   Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)

DAC perform reversal operation of ADC conversion.DAC converts the digital signal into analog format. It usually used for controlling analog devices like DC motors, various drives, etc.

   Interrupt control

The interrupt control used for providing interrupt (delay) for a working program. The interrupt may be external (activated by using interrupt pin) or internal (by using interrupt instruction during programming).

   Special functioning block

Some microcontrollers used only for some special applications (e.g. space systems and robotics) these controllers containing additional ports to perform such special operations. This considered as special functioning block.





Applications of Microcontrollers:
Microcontrollers are mostly used in following electronic equipments :

   Mobile Phones
   Auto Mobiles
   CD/DVD Players
   Washing Machines
   Cameras
   In Computers-> Modems and Keyboard Controllers
   Security Alarms
   Electronic Measurement Instruments.
   Microwave Oven.
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Re: Introduction to Microcontrollers

on Wed Aug 15, 2018 4:48 pm
Admin, are there any types of microcontrollers?
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Re: Introduction to Microcontrollers

on Wed Aug 15, 2018 4:49 pm
Passerby wrote:Admin, are there any types of microcontrollers?

If there is, what are they?
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Re: Introduction to Microcontrollers

on Wed Aug 15, 2018 4:50 pm
What is the the maximum capacitance of the microcontroller?
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Re: Introduction to Microcontrollers

on Wed Aug 15, 2018 4:50 pm
How much of voltage do I need to able to use the microcontroller?
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Re: Introduction to Microcontrollers

on Wed Aug 15, 2018 4:51 pm
How do you even manipulate a microcontroller?
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Re: Introduction to Microcontrollers

on Wed Aug 15, 2018 4:52 pm
What are the software used to manipulate microcontroller?
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Re: Introduction to Microcontrollers

on Wed Aug 15, 2018 4:54 pm
Regarding the Parallel Input/Output, how can you distinguish if its input or output.?
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Re: Introduction to Microcontrollers

on Wed Aug 15, 2018 4:55 pm
What are the different types of memory?
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Re: Introduction to Microcontrollers

on Wed Aug 15, 2018 4:56 pm
Passerby wrote:What are the different types of memory?

Are there even different types of memory? If so, what are they?
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Re: Introduction to Microcontrollers

on Wed Aug 15, 2018 9:19 pm
Are there any substitute for microcontrollers? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using microcontrollers?
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Re: Introduction to Microcontrollers

on Thu Aug 16, 2018 12:11 pm
How many ports are there in a microcontroller?
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Re: Introduction to Microcontrollers

on Thu Aug 16, 2018 12:19 pm
Passerby wrote:
Passerby wrote:What are the different types of memory?

Are there even different types of memory? If so, what are they?

I think the different types of microcontroller are ROM, EPROM and EEPROM. But I could also be wrong.
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Re: Introduction to Microcontrollers

on Thu Aug 16, 2018 12:22 pm
Passerby wrote:What are the software used to manipulate microcontroller?

Are you referring to Embedded Software?
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Re: Introduction to Microcontrollers

on Thu Aug 16, 2018 12:22 pm
Katty wrote:
Passerby wrote:What are the software used to manipulate microcontroller?

Are you referring to Embedded Software?

Well an Embedded software is computer software, written to control machines or devices that are not typically thought of as computers. It is typically specialized for the particular hardware that it runs on and has time and memory constraints.
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Re: Introduction to Microcontrollers

on Thu Aug 16, 2018 12:23 pm
Passerby wrote:How much of voltage do I need to able to use the microcontroller?

Most microcontrollers can only accept voltage supplied within a specified range, and often this voltage is the determining factor for the operating speed of the system clock.
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Re: Introduction to Microcontrollers

on Thu Aug 16, 2018 12:24 pm
Katty wrote:
Passerby wrote:How much of voltage do I need to able to use the microcontroller?

Most microcontrollers can only accept voltage supplied within a specified range, and often this voltage is the determining factor for the operating speed of the system clock.

Atmega32 the manual states that it can receive voltage in the range of 4.5-5.5 volts. Atmega324p has a range of 2.7-5.5 volts, which still allows the use of standard peripherals that require either 3.3 volts or 5.5 volts.
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Re: Introduction to Microcontrollers

on Thu Aug 16, 2018 12:24 pm
Katty wrote:
Katty wrote:
Passerby wrote:How much of voltage do I need to able to use the microcontroller?

Most microcontrollers can only accept voltage supplied within a specified range, and often this voltage is the determining factor for the operating speed of the system clock.

Atmega32 the manual states that it can receive voltage in the range of 4.5-5.5 volts. Atmega324p has a range of 2.7-5.5 volts, which still allows the use of standard peripherals that require either 3.3 volts or 5.5 volts.

So it really depends on what kind/type of microcontroller are you going to use.
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Re: Introduction to Microcontrollers

on Thu Aug 16, 2018 12:26 pm
Passerby wrote:What is the the maximum capacitance of the microcontroller?

What do you mean by the maximum capacitance? Is it the memory capacitance?
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Re: Introduction to Microcontrollers

on Thu Aug 16, 2018 12:27 pm
Ruth Umerez wrote:Are there any substitute for microcontrollers? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using microcontrollers?
Yes microprocessor can be a substitute in Microcontrollers.
The advantage of microcontroller is that, unlike microprocessor it has a built in ROM and RAM . In microprocessor in order to run it you must use another IC that can store data. This small chip can help you in creating device such as robots and other devices. The disadvantage of it is microprocessor is more faster than it because the duty of a microprocessor is processing only the data
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Re: Introduction to Microcontrollers

on Thu Aug 16, 2018 12:29 pm
Katty wrote:
Passerby wrote:What is the the maximum capacitance of the microcontroller?

What do you mean by the maximum capacitance? Is it the memory capacitance?

For example, we are talking about the 8051 Microcontroller, the internal RAM of the 8051 is 128 bytes; it can have external memory upto 64K in size. Thus, total Data Memory available on 8051 Microcontroller is 64K + 128 bytes in size.
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Re: Introduction to Microcontrollers

on Thu Aug 16, 2018 12:30 pm
Katty wrote:
Katty wrote:
Passerby wrote:What is the the maximum capacitance of the microcontroller?

What do you mean by the maximum capacitance? Is it the memory capacitance?

For example, we are talking about the 8051 Microcontroller, the internal RAM of the 8051 is 128 bytes; it can have external memory upto 64K in size. Thus, total Data Memory available on 8051 Microcontroller is 64K + 128 bytes in size.

For more information you could visit multisoftvirtualacademy.
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Re: Introduction to Microcontrollers

on Thu Aug 16, 2018 12:34 pm
Admin wrote:
Ruth Umerez wrote:Are there any substitute for microcontrollers? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using microcontrollers?
Yes microprocessor can be a substitute in Microcontrollers.
The advantage of microcontroller is that, unlike microprocessor it has a built in ROM and RAM . In microprocessor in order to run it you must use another IC that can store data. This small chip can help you in creating device such as robots and other devices. The disadvantage of it is microprocessor is more faster than it because the duty of a microprocessor is processing only the data

In addition to that, one of the advantages of microcontroller is the processor chips are very small and flexible and it only requires low time for performing operation. And additional disadvantage of microcontroller is that it is more complex structure as compared to microprocessor.
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Re: Introduction to Microcontrollers

on Mon Aug 20, 2018 2:57 pm
Katty wrote:
Passerby wrote:
Passerby wrote:What are the different types of memory?

Are there even different types of memory? If so, what are they?

I think the different types of microcontroller are ROM, EPROM and EEPROM. But I could also be wrong.

What is the difference between ROM, EPROM and EEPROM??
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Re: Introduction to Microcontrollers

on Mon Aug 20, 2018 3:00 pm
Who is the inventor of microcontrollers?
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Re: Introduction to Microcontrollers

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